D 27. Describe significant similarities and differences in the basic structure of plant and animal cells.
  • Vacuoles
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Plants have cell walls
  • Plants have chloroplasts for photosynthesis
  • Large central vacuole
  • Animals have centrioles
  • Small vacuoles

D28: Describe the general role of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis.
  • Controls manufacture of all cellular proteins (not only enzymes)
  • Contains instructions for manufacturing proteins
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code “words,” each of which specifies a particular amino acid.

Multimedia #3
RNA in Protein Synthesis - video

D 29. Describe the general role of enzymes in metabolic cell processes.
  • Special proteins that speed up chemical reactions of a cell to biologically useful rates.
  • Without enzymes, metabolism would neither progress through the same steps, nor be fast enough to serve the needs of the cell.

D 30. Explain the role of the cell membrane in supporting cell functions..
  • Cell membrane: composed of fluid-like phospholipid layer
  • Separates cell’s contents from the world around it
  • Acts like a gate, controls what enters and leaves the cell.
  • Is a semipermeable lipid bilayer found in all cells

Multimedia #4
Cell Membrane Animation - video

D 31. Describe the similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses.
  • Can only reproduce using a ‘host’ or living cells
  • Takes over host cell
  • Does not have nuclei
  • Don’t have cell membrane
  • Each viral particle, or virion, consists of genetic material, DNA or RNA, within a protective protein coat called a capsid

Multimedia #5
How viruses attack your body - video

  • Have cell walls
  • Considered ‘living’
  • One cell living organism
  • Reproduce independently
  • Wide-range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods to spirals
  • Prokaryotes
  • No nucleus

D 32. Describe how bacterial and viral infectious diseases are transmitted, and explain the roles of sanitation, vaccination and antibiotic medications in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
· Through direct contact with infected person
· Through indirect contact with infected person
· Through contaminated food or water
· Through the bite of an infected animal
Direct: spread from person to person
Indirect: needs a carrier
· Contaminated water is a major problem in parts of the world with poor sanitation and untreated sewage
· Vaccination gives a weaker form of a pathogen, giving the body immunity to the disease which could kill

D 33. Explain how bacteria and yeasts are used to produce foods for human consumption.
· Bacteria are commonly used in dairy products
Ex: sour cream, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt
· Yeasts- fermentation of various food products like in bread (to make bread rise), in beer

D 34. Describe, in general terms, how the genetic information of organisms can be altered to make them produce new materials.
Genetic engineering- Transformation, Transduction, Conjugation
· Transformation: is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake and expression of foreign material
· Transduction: When bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) infect a bacterial cell, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the DNA replication machinery of the host bacterial cell and make numerous copies of their own DNA or RNA. These copies of bacteriophage DNA or RNA are then packaged into newly synthesized copies of bacteriophage virions.
· Conjugation: transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact

D 35. Explain the risks and benefits of altering the genetic composition and cell products of existing organisms.
1. New Allergens in Food supply
2. Antibiotic Resistance
3. Production of New Toxins
4. Concentration of Toxic Metals
5. Unknown Harms to Health
6. Cross-pollination
7. Superweeds and superpests
1. Better resistance to stress
2. More nutritious staple foods
3. More productive farm animals
4. More food from less land
5. GMOs might reduce the environmental impact of food production and industrial processes
6. Rehabilitation of damaged or less-fertile land
7. Longer shelf lives
8. Biofuels: Organic matter could be bred to provide energy