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1. When enough _HEAT is added to a substance, its state of matter will change. list the states of matter from least movement of particles to most movement of particles.
SOLID, LIQUID, GAS


2. In the study of energy, _OHM's law tells us the voltage can be calculated by multiplying resistance x CURRENT. If 30 amperes of current are flowing through a wire that has a resistance of 4 ohms, what is the voltage of the battery in Watts? 120 watts



3. What are the basic fundamentals of how energy is produced through the methods of burning coal, natural gas, wind farms, and hydroelectric.
  • Coal/Natural Gas are burned to produce HEAT_--> this changes water to -STEAM-> this turns the TURBINE--> this turns the magnet inside the GENERATOR--> this connects to power lines which have resistance and current which makes _ELECTRICITY.

    Wind/Water turn the _TURBINE --> this turns the magnet inside the -GENERATOR-> this connects to power lines which have and RESISTANCE AND CURRENT which make ELECTRICITY.


4. Heat is given off when an object's thermal energy is transferred. Thermal energy can be transferred in how many ways? Name, define and give an example of each.

. heat from liquid/gas transfers to a _ SOLID is CONVECTION EXAMPLE RAMEN NOODLES IN BOILING WATER START MOVING

b. heat from a solid transfers to the atmosphere is RADIATION EXAMPLE YOUR BODY RELEASES RADIATION (HEAT) INTO THE AIR AT ALL TIMES

c. heat from a solid transfers to another SOLID _ is _CONDUCTION EXAMPLE YOUR BODY RELEASES HEAT TO ANY SOLID SURFACE YOU SIT ON (CHAIR)

5. There are dozens of subcategories of energy types, but what are the two main forms of energy?
  • The two main forms of energy are kinetic (bouncing ball, moving car, turning turbine, spinning wheel, flying plane, any form of mechanical energy) and potential (battery, fuel sources like gasoline, anything on a hill has the potential to roll down, any form of chemical energy like a solar panel.)

6. Give several examples of fossil fuels and explain how they are formed.
  • Examples are oil, coal and natural gases. We continue to use them even though they are non-renewable because they are not as expensive as wind and other alternatives.

7. Why do nuclear power plants use surrounding water sources and describe the environmental problems associated with this?
  • Nuclear power plants use water from nearby lakes to cool reactors which returns water to the environment several degrees warmer. The increase in temperature is called thermal pollution and is a form of water pollution and can be harmful to organisms living in the water. Nuclear also creates soil pollution because its nuclear waste is radioactive and must be stored underground.


8. Explain how electromagnets work using the terms electromagnetism, copper coils, voltage, and iron nail.
Electromagnets use a phenomenon called electromagnetism to make an iron nail act like a magnet. You connect the iron to a battery containing at least 1.5 voltage, then wrap at least 50-100 copper coils around it. The current running through the coils creates a magnetic field, which allows the nail to pick up paperclips.

9. Identify the independent and dependent variable in the solar cooker experiment. What are 2 necessary constants for this experiment?

Independent variable = different materials used to make the cookers

Dependent variable = _ temperature of the cookers

Constants and _time of day and the amount of time the cookers were placed outside

10. Give four reasons why fossil fuels are bad.
  • The burning of fossil fuels creates air pollution
  • Transportation of oil and natural gas can lead to accidental oil spills and kill marine wildlife
  • Pipelines built to transport oil and gas over land may alter the ecology of areas
  • The burning of any fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide which is a green house gas that traps heat to the earth’s atmosphere which leads to global warming
  • They are non-renewable.
  • When fossil fuels are burned, chemicals are released into the air that are dangerous to living things.
  • The air pollution causes acid rain.