Grade
Core Themes, Content Standards and Expected Performances
Strand I: Energy Transformation

Content Standards
Expected Performances
Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?
9.1 - Energy cannot be created or destroyed; however, energy can be converted from one form to another.
♦ Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation, is captured by materials and photosynthetic processes, and eventually is transformed into heat.
D1.

D2.

D3.
Describe the effects of adding energy to matter in terms of the motion of atoms and molecules, and the resulting phase changes.

Explain how energy is transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation.

Describe energy transformations among heat, light, electricity, and motion.
Energy Transfer and Transformations – What is the role of energy in our world?
9.2 - The electrical force is a universal force that exists between any two charged objects.
♦ Moving electrical charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets can produce electrical force.
Electrical current can be transformed into light through the excitation of electrons.
D4.


D5.


D6.
Explain the relationship among voltage, current, and resistance in a simple series circuit.

Explain how electricity is used to produce heat and light in incandescent bulbs and heating elements.

Describe the relationship between current and magnetism.
Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
9.3 - Various sources of energy are used by humans and all have advantages and disadvantages.
♦ During the burning of fossil fuels, stored chemical energy is converted to electrical energy through heat transfer processes.
♦ In nuclear fission, matter is transformed directly into energy in a process that is several million times as energetic as chemical burning.
♦ Alternative energy sources are being explored and used to address the disadvantages of using fossil and nuclear fuels.
D7.

D8.


D9.
Explain how heat is used to generate electricity.

Describe the availability, current uses, and environmental issues related to the use of fossil and nuclear fuels to produce electricity.

Describe the availability, current uses, and environmental issues related to the use of hydrogen fuel cells, wind, and solar energy to produce electricity.