Grade 9
Core Themes, Content Standards and Expected Performances
Strand II: Chemical Structures and Properties
Content Standards
Expected Performances
Properties of Matter – How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?
9.4 - Atoms react with one another to form new molecules.
♦ Atoms have a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
♦ The configuration of atoms and molecules determines the properties of the materials.



Describe the general structure of the atom, and explain how the properties of the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table are related to their atomic structures.

Describe how atoms combine to form new substances by transferring electrons (ionic bonding) or sharing electrons (covalent bonding).

Explain the chemical composition of acids and bases, and explain the change of pH in neutralization reactions.

Properties of Matter – How does the structure of matter affect the properties and uses of materials?
9.5 - Due to its unique chemical structure, carbon forms many organic and inorganic compounds.
♦ Carbon atoms can bond to one another in chains, rings and branching networks to form a variety of structures, including fossil fuels, synthetic polymers, and the large molecules of life.



Explain how the structure of the carbon atom affects the type of bonds it forms in organic and inorganic molecules.

Describe combustion reactions of hydrocarbons and their resulting by-products.

Explain the general formation and structure of carbon-based polymers, including synthetic polymers, such as polyethylene, and biopolymers, such as carbohydrate.

Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
9.6 - Chemical technologies present both risks and benefits to the health and well-being of humans, plants and animals.
♦ Materials produced from the cracking of petroleum are the starting points for the production of many synthetic compounds.
♦ The products of chemical technologies include synthetic fibers, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and fuels.



Explain how simple chemical monomers can be combined to create linear, branched, and/or cross-linked polymers.

Explain how the chemical structure of polymers affects their physical properties.

Explain the short- and long-term impacts of landfills and incineration of waste materials on the quality of the environment.