Grade 9
Core Themes, Content Standards and Expected Performances
Strand III: Global Interdependence
Content Standards
Expected Performances
The Changing Earth – How do materials cycle through the Earth’s systems?
9.7 - Elements on Earth move among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles.
♦ Elements on Earth exist in essentially fixed amounts and are located in various chemical reservoirs.
♦ The cyclical movement of matter between reservoirs is driven by the Earth’s internal and external sources of energy.

D19.



D20.


D21.
Explain how chemical and physical processes cause carbon to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.

Explain how solar energy causes water to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.

Explain how internal energy of the Earth causes matter to cycle through the magma and the solid earth.


Science and Technology in Society – How do science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
9.8 - The use of resources by human populations may affect the quality of the environment.
♦ Emission of combustion by-products, such as SO2, CO2, and NOx by industries and vehicles is a major source of air pollution.
♦ Accumulation of metal and non-metal ions used to increase agricultural productivity is a major source of water pollution.

D22.



D23.



D24.



Explain how the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere can form acid rain, and how acid rain affects water sources, organisms, and human-made structures.

Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO
2) in the atmosphere increases Earth’s “greenhouse” effect and may cause climate changes.

Explain how the accumulation of mercury, phosphates, and nitrates affects the quality of water and the organisms that live in rivers, lakes, and oceans.

Science and Technology in Society – How do
science and technology affect the quality of our lives?
9.9 - Some materials can be recycled, but
others accumulate in the environment and may affect the balance of the Earth systems.

♦ New technologies and changes in lifestyle can have positive and/or negative effects on the environment.

D25.

D26.



Explain how land development, transportation options, and consumption of resources may affect the environment.

Describe human efforts to reduce the consumption of raw materials and improve air and water quality.