1.All fossil fuels, the main resource used by humans, release harmful toxins that augment the greenhouse effect. Of the following, which releases the least amount of harmful toxins?A. Coal
B. Oil
C. Natural Gas
D. Petroleum

2. The burning of fossil fuels may contribute to an increase in global temperatures in the greenhouse effect. In what way does the burning of these fossil fuels lead to this increase in temperature?
A. The combustion products reflect solar radiation away from Earth.
B. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere attracts solar radiation.
C. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere blocks energy from escaping into space.
D. The combustion products allow more engery to enter the earth.

3. Which of the following is not a way that acid rain affects the environment and human-made structures?
A. Acid rain can harm aquatic animals.
B. Acid rain promotes plant growth.
C. Acid rain can harm the water to make the pH of the water less than 5, not allowing the eggs to hatch.
D. Acid rain causes gravestones to chip away, also making the writing on the gravestones illegible.

4. Which of the following pictures best represents the natural greenhouse effect?

5. Which of the following is directly responsible for acid rain?
A. steam vented from a nuclear power plant
B. sulfur dioxide released from a coal-fired power plant
C. mining of coal for a coal-fired power plant
D. processing of uranium for a nuclear power plant

6. What is one of the ways that humans have affected the air quality in a negative way?
A. When humans burn fossil fuels to produce energy, air pollutants are produced.
B. People have started to use energy efficient cars.
C. People have started to use other materials, such as natural gas, instead of coal to produce energy.
D. Restrictions have been made on the amount of pollution factories can produce.
7. Many communities are now encouraging the recycling of plastics. Why is recycling plastics beneficial for the environment?
Recycling plastics is beneficial for the environment because plastics decompose slowly. If plastics are not recycled, they are put into landfills. Since the plastics do not decompose quickly, they take up space in the landfill. Landfills destroy much of the environment and are taking up space that would be used by nature to grow plants. Also, due to this filling up of the landfills, cities are throwing plastics into oceans. This results in polluted beaches and health hazards for the creatures that live in the oceans. If plastics are recycled, the landfills would not fill up as quickly and there would be less of them, and the beaches would not be as polluted and there would not be as many health hazards due to plastics being in the ocean for creatures.

8. Which of the following is not true about how humans make an effort to reduce the consumption of raw materials and improve the quality of air and water?
A. We develop renewable energy sources.
B. We limit the amount of pollution factories can produce.
C. We try to maintain our fuel efficiency.
D. We create laws to prevent water pollution.

9. Which is the correct order of the water cycle?
A. Evaporation -> Transpiration -> Precipitation -> Groundwater -> Runoff
B. Transpiration -> Groundwater -> Evaporation -> Precipitation -> Runoff
C. Precipitation -> Evaporation -> Transpiration -> Runoff -> Groundwater
D. Evaporation -> Precipitation -> Transpiration -> Runoff -> Groundwater

Use the following picture to answer questions 10-11:


10. In the picture provided, what does the letter B represent?
A. Burning of Fossil Fuel
B. Diffusion
C. Photosynthesis
D. Biomass

11. In the picture provided, which letter best represents Aquatic Biomass?
A. L
B. D
C. K
D. C

12. Which of the following statements is true?
A. More carbon in the air means less greenhouse gases in the air.
B. More carbon in the air means more greenhouse gases in the air.
C. Less carbon in the air means less greenhouse gases in the air.
D. Less carbon in the air means more greenhouse gases in the air.

13. Increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere contribute to global warming. Which of the following might reduce levels of CO2?
A. Deforestation
B. Using fossil fuels
C. Burning wood
D. Planting trees

14. Acid rain is becoming a serious problem in many large cities. What are some ways it is produced?
A. Turning off lights, computers, and other electronics when not using them
B. Trying to limit the use of air conditioning
C. Using appliances that require and consume lots of electricity
D. Answers A and B
E. Answers A, B, and C

15. Solid earth is formed by which of the following ways:
A. Energy from plate tectonics produces magma which rises to the surface and solidifies
B. Rain falls to the ground and solidifies in the winter, adding another layer of earth to the surface
C. The Earth is constantly expanding and energy from its core produces dirt and gravel on the surface
D. Solid earth is man-made and the SBEU (Surface Builders for Earth United) make a new layer every year