D 19. Explain how chemical and physical processes cause carbon to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.

Geological Carbon Cycle: CO2 from atmosphere gets tied up as H2CO3, which combines with minerals to form carbonates. The carbonates get partially dissolved and gets wash into bodies of water, then they settle on the ocean floor. Tectonic forces the CO2 to be released through volcanic erptions, hot springs, etc.
Biological Carbon Cycle: During photosynthesis plant

The Carbon Cycle (don't grade)

1. Cartoon on the Carbon Cycle - The Carbon Cycle.

Video on the Calvin Cycle (including photosynthesis): Click Here (don't grade)

D 20. Explain how solar energy causes water to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.
rs and flows into the oceans.
Solar Energy Cycle (don't grade)

D 21. Explain how internal energy of the Earth causes matter to cycle through the magma and the solid earth.

Internal energy drives plate tectonics and produces magmas that cool to form igneous rocks. These rocks can be sub ducted back into the mantle later or metamorphosed during tectonic activity.

This is the rock cycle. As shown by the diagram, at the stage of metamorphic rock, the radioactive processes withing the Earth's core provide heat energy to melt the rock to form magma. This magma then crystallizes to form igneous rock. (don't grade)

D 22. Explain how the release of sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere can form acid rain, and how acid rain affects water sources, organisms and human-made structures.

Sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere can react with water in the atmosphere. This will precipitate as acid rain and contains the sulfur dioxide. It can harm aquatic animals. If the pH of the water is less than 5 then fish eggs can’t hatch. Acid rain can cause gravestones to be illegible. And can chip away at statues overtime.

2. Formation of Acid Rain

A video on how acid rain forms, what the effects of acid rain are, and an experiment so you can see the effects of acid rain. See how acid rain works. (don't grade)

D 23. Explain how the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere increases Earth’s “greenhouse” effect and may cause climate changes.

3. The Greenhouse Effect

4. This following video clip shows the Greenhouse Effect, the effect of the Greenhouse Effect, the possible outcomes for the future if no action is taken, and what we all can do to prevent these from coming true. Enjoy.

More carbon in the air means that there are more greenhouse gasses in the air because carbon is a major greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gasses help keep heat from the sun within the Earths atmosphere. This is a good thing until too much of this heat gets trapped inside. This is thought to cause global warming. More carbon in the air means more greenhouse gasses. This causes more heat to be trapped within the atmosphere, resulting in an increase in temperature.

This video clip explains how the "greenhouse" effect is created, and what may happen if it continues. Engage in this video! (don't grade)

D 24. Explain how the accumulation of mercury, phosphates and nitrates affects the quality of water and the organisms that live in rivers, lakes and oceans.
D 25. Explain how land development, transportation options and consumption of resources may affect the environment.

Land development, which starts off with deforestation, affects the environment by cutting down the trees. One of the most endangered forests are the rainforests. They produce about 40% of the earth’s oxygen, so cutting them down would definitely be detrimental to the environment. Transportation options, which are mainly cars, produce millions of tons of CO2 per year. The CO2 then causes more “greenhouse” effect, as explained by D 23. The main resources used by humans are fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum) and burning them causes the release of carbon dioxide, which increases the amount of “greenhouse” effect, as mentioned above.

D 26. Describe human efforts to reduce the consumption of raw materials and improve air and water quality.

Humans have now finally begun to think about the environment. We now are becoming less dependent on nonrenewable fuels, reducing and cleaning up pollution, recycling, protecting endangered ecosystems and animals, and developing green, renewable energy sources. For the problem of air pollution, we have begun to limit the amount of pollution factories can produce, increase fuel efficiency, and find cleaner fuels. For the problem of water pollution, there have been numerous regulations and acts to limit and or stop water pollution. For example, in the UK, it’s a criminal offense to pollute a lake, river, or sea without proper authority.

A video on how water pollution is caused and what the United States government has done to improve the water quality. Water Pollution. (don't grade)

external image Atmosphere_composition_diagram.jpg

5. Water Pollution (This does not include the stereotypical pollution such as trash.)